For the ‘ Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration ‘, or the Global Compat on migration proposed by the UN, which should be signed at the meeting next 10 and 11 December in Marrakech, before being formally approved by a resolution of the Assembly General of the UN, hard days are announced . Today, Israel s i joined the United States and the group of European countries that do not intend to join the pact pact on migration. ” We are committed to defending our borders against illegal migrants, this is what we have done and will continue to do, ” said Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu .
The pact is creating divisions within the European Union: Austria , the Czech Republic , Poland , Croatia , Slovenia , Bulgaria , Hungary and Switzerland who have already indicated that they do not intend to sign the agreement .
A confirmation of the close that Tel Aviv is giving to the immigration of an increasingly markedly Jewish country . Today, moreover, hundreds of Ethiopian Jews took to the streets in Addis Ababa to protest against the recent decision by the Israeli government to admit as migrants only a thousand : a decision that divides the families of those who have already migrated to the Jewish state and contradicts the commitment of 2015 to welcome them. It is estimated that in Ethiopia there remained about 8,000 and brei Falascia . The leaders of the community today appealed to the Ethiopian Jews living in Israel not to vote for the Likud, the promoter of the squeeze. “I appeal to the Ethiopian Jews to think twice before voting for the Likud, because the Prime Minister expressed the party, Binyamin Netanyahu is keeping his word to help us to emigrate to Israel,” he told ‘Associated Press’ Neggousa Zemene Alemu , coordinator of the Jewish community for Addis Ababa and Gondar. The Jews in Ethiopia complain of living in poverty, of being marginalized, while “Israel pulls her for long instead of coming to our rescue”.
Returning to the Global Compact on Migrations, also in Italy , in recent days, the issue was started with various pronouncements by leaders of the League and Brothers of Italy against the document , appeals for the Government to decide for the no. And considering the policy that the yellow and green government has put in place on the subject of migrants, there does not seem to be any doubt that Italy does not reach the signature table in Morocco.
The Global Compact is a pact for safe , orderly and regular migration , as the document states, underlined by the supporters of the document, which does not limit the sovereignty of any State. Also, the document concerns only migrants and not refugees:
Refugees are the subject of another Compact, adopted by a different process.
The Compact on Migration is based on the principle of distinction between migrants and refugees . Refugees have specific protection, as provided for by the 1951 Geneva Convention, due to the political persecution they are subjected to. Migrants, most of whom are motivated by economic reasons, are not entitled to this protection.
The Pact requires states to manage their borders in a manner ” respectful of national sovereignty and obligations under international law ” and “to prevent irregular immigration “. A reinforced cooperation is planned to combat the smuggling of migrants and trafficking in human beings and to dismantle smuggling networks for the benefit of states and migrants.
In no way does the Pact create a ‘ right to migration ‘: the admission of foreign citizens is the prerogative of States that are free to decide who to allow on their territory .
The Global Compact is a contribution to the improvement of the management of migratory flows at an international level involving the countries of origin, transit and destination. Based on the principle that no state can manage the migration challenge on its own, it aims to encourage enhanced cooperation on migration to ensure that it is not managed in a disorganized way. It is based on the principle of shared responsibility between countries of origin , transit and destination in the governance of migratory flows. The key points of the Pact include cooperation to prevent deaths on migratory routes and save lives at sea and elsewhere, strengthen the fight against smuggling and trafficking in human beings and combat irregular migration, priorities, in particular, for Italian politics of the new government.
The Global Compact does not create new obligations . The principle of national sovereignty is explicitly enunciated in the text , it is even given the status of ‘guiding principle’. Furthermore, the Compact is not legally binding . It is therefore impossible to use the Compact to question the migration policy of a State .
The document is also a collection of good practices, ‘ political tools ‘, which States are encouraged to implement in implementing their migration policy.
At the heart of the document is the fight against dangerous , disorganized and irregular migration . It envisages that states organize themselves to work together against the smuggling of migrants and to dismantle the networks of traffickers . Countries are called to strengthen their legal arsenals to prosecute smugglers. The measures envisaged by the Pact include the exchange of data , particularly between intelligence services, to better combat smugglers.
The Pact also establishes the right for States to distinguish between regular and irregular migrant status in the implementation of their migration policy. The document then establishes the commitment of the countries of origin to cooperate to allow irregular migrants to return and reintegrate in their country : the countries of origin undertake to provide the necessary documents to identify the migrants and to make the return journey. , considering that often it is the absence of these documents that hinders their effective return.
The countries of origin are called upstream to ensure effective control of their borders and downstream to facilitate the return and reintegration of irregular migrants.
The text also invites the countries of origin to strengthen their efforts to address the root causes of migration and to work towards the repression of smuggling networks.